Mohammad Husam Mohammad Alhumsi


Research has considered phonemic awareness skill as effective pillar in acquiring literacy skills. This skill has been identified as prerequisite for reading success However, little is known about the phonemic awarenessinstruction of Jordanian EFL emergent readers. This study therefore explored the impact of phonemic awareness instruction on word recognition among Jordanian EFL emergent readers.In this study, the research instrument was semi-structured interviews. Seven EFL students of emergent readers were interviewed. They were all first graders aged 7 years on average. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings indicated that there is a lack of knowledge or misunderstanding between the term of phonics and phonemic awareness as well. It has been also found that emergent readers’ views show positive support towards the use of phonemic awareness skill. At the end of the study, some pedagogical implications for curriculum designers as well as English teachers were provided accordingly.


Phonemic Awareness, Phonemic Awareness Instruction, EFL Emergent Readers, Word recognition, Jordan

Full Text:



Aarnoutse, C., Van Leeuwe, J., & Verhoeven, L. (2005). Early literacy from a longitudinal perspective. Educational Research and Evaluation, 11(3), 253–275.

Adams, M. (1994). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Alhumsi, M. & Affendi, A. (2014). Beginning readers have no prior experience with sound segmentation. Journal of Education and Practice, 5 (11), 32-41.

Alhumsi, M. & Affendi, A. (2016). The relationship between phonemic segmentation skill and EFL word recognition- A review of literature. International Journal of Linguistics, 8 (2), 31-46.

Al Otaiba, S., Kosanovich, M., & Torgesen, J. (2012). Assessment and instruction in phonemic awareness and word recognition skills. In A. G. Kamhi & H. W. Catts (Eds.), Language and reading disabilities (3rd ed., pp. 112-145). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

Al-Shaboul, Y., Assasfeh, S., Alshboul, S., & Almomani, H., (2013). Are Jordanian students phonemically aware? : A descriptive study. Journal of Educational & Psychological Sciences, 14 (2), 37-53.

Anthony, J. & Lonigan, C. (2004). The nature of phonological awareness: converging evidence from four studies of preschool and early grade school children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96 (1), 43-55.

Anthony, J., Williams, J., McDonald, R., & Francis, D. (2007). Phonological processing and emergent literacy in younger and older preschool children. Annals of Dyslexia, 57(2), 113–137.

Archibald, L. & Gathercole, S. (2007). Nonword repetition in specific language impairment: More than a phonological short-term memory deficit. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14 (5), 919-924.

Baddeley, A. (2007). Working memory, thought and action. New York: Oxford University Press

Ball, E. & Blachman, B. (1991). Does phoneme awareness training in kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26(1), 49–66.

Beech, J. (2005). Ehri’s model of phases of learning to read: a brief critique. Journal of Research in Reading, 28 (1), 50-58.

Beecher, C. (2011). A latent growth curve analysis of reading achievement for an at-risk population. (Doctoral Dissertation). Washington State University, USA.

Brantlinger, E., Jimenez, R., Klingner, J., Pugach, M., & Richardson, V. (2005). Qualitative studies in special education. Exceptional children, 71(2), 195-207.

Bos, C., Mather, N., Dickson, S., Podhajski, B., & Chard, D. (2001). Perceptions and knowledge of preservice and inservice educators about early reading instruction. Annals of Dyslexia, 51, 97-120.

Castiglioni-Spalten, M. & Ehri, L. (2003). Phonemic awareness instruction: Contribution of articulatory segmentation to novice beginners' reading and writing. Scientific Studies of Reading, 7(1), 25-52.

Castles, A., Rastle, K., & Nation, K. (2018). Ending the reading wars: Reading acquisition from novice to expert. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 19(1), 5-51.

Chapman, M. (2003) Phonemic awareness: Clarifying what we know. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 7 (1 & 2), 91-114.

Chard, D., & Dickson, S. (1999). Phonological awareness: Instructional and assessment guidelines. Intervention in School and Clinic, 34(5), 261-270.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). Routledge. NY

Creswell, J. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Dehaene, S. & Naccache, L. (2001). Towards a cognitive neuroscience of consciousness: basic evidence and a workspace framework. Cognition, 79 (1), 1-37.

Ebert, A. (2009). Developmental spelling and word recognition: A validation of Ehri's model of word recognition development. (Doctoral dissertation) The University of Virginia, USA.

Ehri, L. (2005). Development of sight word reading: Phases and findings. In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 135–154). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Ehri, L. (2014) Orthographic mapping in the acquisition of sight word reading, spelling memory, and vocabulary learning. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(1), 5-21.

Ehri, L., Nunes, S., Willows, D., Schuster, B., Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z. & Shanahan, T. (2001). Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence from the national reading panel panel’s meta -analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(3), 250-287.

Fender, M. (2003). English word recognition and word integration skills of native Arabic and Japanese- speaking learners of English as a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24(2), 289-315.

Foy, J., & Mann, V. (2006). Changes in letter sound knowledge are associated with development of phonological awareness in pre-school children. Journal of Research in Reading, 29(2), 143–161.

Fraenkel, J., & Wallen, N. (2009). How to design and evaluate research in education, 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Ganie, R., Maulana, W., & Rangkuti, R. (2019). ERRORS IN PRONOUNCING ENGLISH PHONEMES: A PRAAT ANALYSIS. Language Literacy: Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Language Teaching, 3(1), 49-63.‏

Good, R., Simmons, D., & Smith, S. (1998). Effective academic interventions in the United States: Evaluating and enhancing the acquisition of early reading skills. School psychology review. 27 (1), 45-56.

Gove, A. & Cvelich, P. (2010). Early reading: Igniting education for All. A report by the early grade learning community of practice. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute.

Gray, A., & McCutchen, D. (2006). Young readers’ use of phonological information: phonological awareness, memory, and comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(4), 325–333.

Griffith, P. & Olson, M. (1992). Phonemic awareness helps beginning readers break the code. The Reading Teacher, 45(7), 516-523.

Gyovai, L., Cartledge, G., Kourea, L., Yurick, A., & Gibson, L. (2009). Early reading intervention: Responding to the learning needs of young at-risk English language learners. Learning Disability Quarterly, 32(3), 143-162.

International Reading Association. (1999). Using multiple methods of beginning reading instruction: A position statement of the International Reading Association. Newark, Delaware.

Kern, M., & Friedman, H. (2008). Early educational milestones as predictors of lifelong academic achievement, midlife adjustment, and longevity. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(4), 419-430.

Kim, D., Kim, W., & Lee, K. (2007). The relationship between phonological awareness and early reading for first grade Korean language learners with reading difficulties. Asia Pacific Education Review, 8(3), 426-434.

Kucukoglu, H. (2013). Improving reading skills through effective reading strategies. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 709 – 714.

Lane, H., Pullen, P., Eisele, M., & Jordan, L. (2002). Preventing reading failure: Phonological awareness assessment and instruction. Preventing School Failure, 46(3), 101-110.

Lonigan, C., Schatschneider, C., & Westberg, L. (2008). Results of the national early literacy panel research synthesis: Identification of children's skills and abilities linked to later outcomes in reading, writing, and spelling. In Developing early literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel (pp. 55-106). Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy.

Manning, M. (2005). Phonemic awareness: As kids learn how to read and write, their phonemic awareness will gradually develop. Teaching K-8, 36 (3), 68-69.

Nag S., Chiat S., Torgerson C., Snowling M. (2014) Literacy, foundation learning and assessment in developing countries: Final Report. Education rigorous literature review. Department for International Development.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read. An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Retrieved May 20, 2015 from

Nation, K. & Hulme, C. (1997). Phonemic segmentation, not onset-rime segmentation, predicts early reading and spelling skills. Reading Research Quarterly, 32(2), 154-167.

Perfetti, C. & Marron, M. (1998). Learning to read: Literacy acquisition by children and adults. In D.A. Wagner (Ed.). Advances in adult literacy research and development. Hampton Press.

Schuele, M. & Boudreau, D. (2008). Phonological awareness intervention: Beyond the basics. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 39 (1), 3–20.

Senechal, M. & LeFevre, J. (2002). Parental involvement in the development of children’s reading skills: A five-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 73(2), 445–460.

Shankweiler, D. & Fowler, A. (2004). Questions people ask about the role of phonological processes in learning to read. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 17(5), 483–515.

Snow, C., Burns, S & Griffin, P (eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Stanovich, K. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(4), 360-407.

Suggate, S., Schaughency, E., & Reese, E. (2013). Children learning to read later catch up to children reading earlier. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(1), 33– 48.

Torgesen, J., Alexander, A., Wagner, R., Rashotte, C., Voeller, K., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34 (1), 33-58, 78.

Tunmer, W. & Nesdale, A. (1985). Phonemic segmentation skill and beginning reading. Journal of educational Psychology, 77(4), 417.

Vaughn, S., & Linan-Thompson, S. (2004). Research-based methods of reading instruction: Grades K–3. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Walliman, N. (2011). Research methods: The basics. NY. Routledge.

Walsh, R. (2009). Word games: the importance of defining phonemic awareness for professional discourse. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 32(3) 211-225.

Westwood, P. (2001). Reading and Learning Difficulties. Victoria: ACER Press.

Whitehurst, G. & Lonigan, C. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69(3), 848–872.

Yeh, S. (2003). An evaluation of two approaches for teaching phonemic awareness to children in head start. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 18(4), 513-529.

Yeh, S., & Connell, D. (2008). Effects of rhyming, vocabulary, and phonemic awareness instruction on phonemic awareness. Journal of Research in Reading, 31 (2), 243-256.

Yopp, H. (1992). Developing phonemic awareness in young children. The Reading Teacher, 45(9), 696-703.

Yopp, H. & Yopp, R. (2000). Supporting phonemic awareness development in the classroom. The Reading Teacher, 54(2), 130-143.

Yopp, H. & Yopp, R. (2009). Phonological awareness is child's play! YC Young Children, 64(1), 1-9.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Fakultas Sastra 
Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara (UISU), Medan
Jl. Sisingamangaraja Teladan Medan 20217
Telp. (061) 7869911, e-mail: