Tegar Arif Topan


The study about syntax is quite significant because some people may write sentences yet they have no idea the proper structure of grammar. In this study, the writer focuses on syntax which has something to do with phrasal verbs discussed in tree diagram. This study uses The Hammer of Thor novel by Rick Riordan as the data source. The objective of the study is to find out kinds of phrasal verbs in The Hammer of Thor novel and the meaning of those phrasal verbs. This study used qualitative method. There are 33 phrasal verbs found in the novel as the source of data. Those particles which form the phrasal verbs are out, up, for, down, about, back, on, off, into, away, through, from, and over. Based on the data found, the phrasal verbs are different from verb phrases in written form. Furthermore, the tree diagram gives more understanding how phrasal verbs are formed and how to use them syntactically.


linguistics; phrasal verbs; syntax; tree diagram

Full Text:



Adger, D & Svenonius, P. (2015). How linguistic is the language faculty: a view from generative syntax. Frontiers in Psychology (Language Sciences)doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01421

Agajie, B. A. (2020a). Syntactic structure of adjective, adverb, and prepositional phrases of Awgni. LLT Journal, 23(2), 368-382. doi:10.24071/llt.v23i2.2527.g2011.

Agajie, B. A. (2020b). The syntactic structure of awgni noun phrases. LiNGUA: Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa dan Sastra, 15(2), 111 - 122. doi:

Cambridge Dictionary. (2019). Cambridge Dictionary. Cambridge: University Press.

Chomsky, N. (2002). Syntactic structures. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmBH.

Chomsky, N. (2017). Language architecture and its import for evolution. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 1–6.

Council, N. (2016). A syntactic approach to part-of-speech categories author (s): Ralph B. Long Published by: National Council of Teachers of English Stable URL.

Creswell, J. W., Hanson, W. E., & Clark, V. L. P. (2007). Qualitative research designs: selection and implementation, 35(2), 236–264.

Everaert, M. B. H., Huybregts, M. A. C., Berwick, R. C., Chomsky, N., Tattersall, I., Moro, A., & Bolhuis, J. J. (2017). What is language and how could it have evolved ? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 21(8), 569– 571.

Grains, R. & Redman, S. (2011). Idioms and phrasal verbs. London: Oxford University Press.

Hornby, A. S. (2010). Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary, 8th edition. London: Oxford University Press.

Indarti, D. (2020). Lexical richness of newspaper editorials published in Southeast Asian countries. Studies in English Language and Education, 7(1), 55-69. doi: 10.24815/siele.v7i1.15032.

Lingga, H. D. (2006). Advance english grammar for toefl preparation. Jakarta: Puspa Swara.

Lu, Z., & Sun, J. (2017). Presenting english polysemous phrasal verbs with two metaphor-based cognitive methods to chinese efl learners. System, 1–9.

Medina, A. & Saraswati, R. (2021). A semantic analysis of phrasal verbs produced by hillary clinton in the commencement speech.

Msuya, E. A. (2020). Analysis of newspaper headlines: A case of two Tanzanian English dailies. Journal of Education, Humanities, and Sciences, 8(2).

Olugbenga, A. S. (2020). A linguistic-stylistic analysis of newspaper headlines of Metele attack on Nigerian army by Boko Haram insurgents. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 10(2), 880-887. doi: 10.29322/IJSRP.10.02.2020.p98108.

Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. (2015). Oxford advanced learners dictionary. Oxford: University Press.

Riordan, R. (2016). Magnus chase and the gods of asgard. New York: Hyperion

Robert, D. & Van Valin, J. R. (2001). An introdution to linguistic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thomas, K., Riggs, R., & Stothart, K. (2013). The meaning of changing expectations : a qualitative descriptive study. 26(1)

Wijaya, F. R., & Helmie, J. (2019). An analysis of directive speech acts in the fault in our stars movie script. Jurnal JOEPALLT (Journal of English Pedagogy, Linguistics, Literature, and Teaching), 7(1).

Yasmin, A. R. Indrawati, N. L. K. M., & Rahayuni, N. K. S. (2017). Syntactic analysis of headline.

structure in the Jakarta Post online. Jurnal Humanis, 19(1), 7-73.

Ziyayeva, D. (2020). Verbs of speech activity in the newspapers. Theoretical and Applied Science, 84(4), 1005-1008. doi: 10.15863/TAS.2020.04.84.185.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Fakultas Sastra 
Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara (UISU), Medan
Jl. Sisingamangaraja Teladan Medan 20217
Telp. (061) 7869911, e-mail: