Rifqi Akbar, Nerry Agustin


Colonialism is one of the events of colonization of Europeans or Western nations to a nation or continent with inferior value to its customs, intellectuality, and marginalization. It results in the distingency of social structures that experience racial inequality and discrimination, including black people. White supremacy perpetuates an ideology that can take away the human rights of blacks, especially the ideal identity of masculinity, the black men. Black men are represented as beasts, combat-ready pioneers, obedient slaves, and so on. This representation becomes a construction of an ideological discourse that marginalizes black people. This discourse affects psychological and social dualism and intersectionalism that rests on resistance to white supremacy. This study aims to reveal the discourse of the identity of idealistic masculinity in black men. The method used is descriptive-qualitative. This method is employed in relating the problems that occur to Alfa Ndiaye who experiences the traumatic experience of the death of his best friend in his life journey while tracing racial equality between the countries of Francophone, France-Africa (Senegal). This study uses intersectional, masculinity, and racial studies. The material object is the novel At Night All Blood is Black by David Diop. In contrast, the formal object is ideology's effect in identifying masculinity's attributes in black people, especially in the main character, Alfa Ndiaye. Thus, white hegemony always uses various ways to make the ‘wounded masculinity’ of Ndiaye feel pressured and it is considered that their savagery is beneficial for Captain Armand in raising French independence.


colonialism; intersection; masculinity; racism; supremacy

Full Text:



Ariesta, F., & Muliastuti, L. (2017). Diskriminasi ras dalam film The Help karya Tate Taylor (Kajian feminisme). BAHTERA : Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Dan Sastra, 16(2), 47–55.

Bin Elo, M. Z. (2020). Kajian Feminisme Interseksi dalam Film Dear White People (2014). BUANA GENDER : Jurnal Studi Gender dan Anak, 5(1), 1–12.

Diop, D. (2020). At night all blood is black: Winner of the international booker prize 2021. Pushkin Press.

Fausto-Sterling, A. (2019). Gender/sex, sexual orientation, and identity are in the body: How did they get there? Journal of Sex Research, 56(4–5), 529–555.

Few-Demo, A. L., & Allen, K. R. (2020). Gender, feminist, and intersectional perspectives on families: A decade in review. Journal of Marriage and Family, 82(1), 326–345.

Garvey, L. (2019). ’I hate myself ’: A look into internalized racism among black college students. Alpenglow: Binghamton University Undergraduate Journal of Research and Creative Activity, 5(1), 4–11.

Girgenti, A. A. (2015). The intersection of victim race and gender: The “black male victim effect” and the death penalty. Race and Justice, 5(4), 307–329.

Hasyim, N. (2021). Good boys doing feminism: Maskulinitas dan masa depan laki-laki baru. Buku Mojok.

Huang, X. (2021). An analysis of Edgar Linton’s psyche based on archetypes theory. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, 4(7), 01–06.

Johnson, T. H. (2018). Challenging the myth of black male privilege. Spectrum: A Journal on Black Men, 6(2), 21.

Nadhifah, N. L. (2017). Beban ganda yang dialami perempuan kulit hitam dalam dua novel Toni Morrison “a mercy” dan “home.” Lensa, 7(1), 35–51.

Pierre, J. (2020). Slavery, anthropological knowledge, and the racialization of Africans. Current Anthropology, 61(S22), S220–S231.

Putri, R. A. S. P., & Saleh, R. (2022). Representasi rasisme dalam film green book. Jurnal Komunikasi, 15(2), 43–56.

Sabil, M., & Kristianto, B. (2021). Konstruksi maskulinitas laki-laki Afrika Amerika dalam sistem rasisme. Nusa: Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa Dan Sastra, 16(3), 259–272.

Salter, P. S., Adams, G., & Perez, M. J. (2018). Racism in the structure of everyday worlds: A cultural-psychological perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(3), 150–155.

Strier, R., & Perez-Vaisvidovsky, N. (2021). Intersectionality and fatherhood: Theorizing non-hegemonic fatherhoods. Journal of Family Theory and Review, 13(3), 334–346.

Tißberger, M. (2019). At the intersection of gender and racism: Critical whiteness as a method of hegemonial self-reflection. In I. Jungwirth, & C. Buschke-Urban (Eds.), Gender and Diversity Studies: European perspectives (pp. 149-172). Barbara Budrich.

Udasmoro, W. (2017). Dari doing ke undoing gender: Teori dan praktik dalam kajian feminisme. Gadjah Mada University Press.

Wolbring, G. (2020). Violence and abuse through an ability studies lens. Indian Journal of Critical Disability Studies, 1(1), 41–67.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Fakultas Sastra 
Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara (UISU), Medan
Jl. Sisingamangaraja Teladan Medan 20217
Telp. (061) 7869911, e-mail: